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Immunology

Inflammation and Immune Enhancement

Many disease conditions we deal with are of an inflammatory nature. Much attention is given in human and animal medicine to anti-inflammatory products. I would like to explain the basics of inflammation and how and why it can be modulated.

Inflammation is a function of the immune system and it is one of the ways the body has to deal with foreign invaders. Theses foreign invaders can be of an internal or external nature.

Examples:                           External                                               Internal

                                            -Bacteria                                             -Mutated cells

                                            -Viruses                                              -Damaged cells

                                            -Parasites

                                            -Splinters

The immune system can broadly be divided into two categories, the selective and the non-selective component.

                The non-selective part of the immune system is the first line of defense in dealing with a foreign invader. It is comprised of a group of cells that attack an invader with the intent of destroying it. The specific cells would include:

                Macrophages

                Neutrophils

                Eosinophils

These cells attempt to engulf an invader, especially bacteria, and destroy them by using an enzyme that will rupture the cell wall. These cells are always present in the body and can quickly be recruited to any location in the body.

                The selective part of the immune system operates against specific antigens, either from an internal or an external source. Largely directed by white blood cells called lymphocytes, this system can produce antibodies, induce special cells called Killer T Cells and produce specialized proteins (cytokines) such as interferon. Because of the specific nature of this system, it takes time for the selective immune system to be at full function when it first recognizes a new antibody.

How does this all apply?

    1. Bacteria can be handled with the non-specific system because they float around in the body fluid and attach to the surface of cells. This allows white blood cells to reach them and destroy them.
    2. Viruses operate by going inside our cells and using the host cell to multiply. They are better handled by the selective system which can destroy infected cells. This is partly why viral infections are said to have to “run their course” – it takes time to get the selective system at full function.
    3. There is much communication between all the cells in an immune response. This is done with proteins, such as cytokines, that prime the immune system to be at full alert. Colostral whey products can provide these proteins when administered to an animal as part of its therapy. They can act as an immunostimulant.
    4. Inflammation is the term to describe the reaction in the body to an immune response. Some of the symptoms are:
      • Swelling
      • Localized heat/fever
      • Redness
      • Pain
      • Sometimes loss of function

          These symptoms are unpleasant for the animal and can cause lack of appetite and poor performance. Understanding the value of the immune response but yet being concerned about the symptoms in the animal we are faced with a big question:

          1. HOW DO WE MAKE THE ANIMAL FEEL BETTER WITHOUT DIMINISHING THE STRENGTH OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM? 

            There is a tendency in medicine to use steroidal or non-steroidal anti-inflammatories routinely. While they certainly have their uses, there is a concern that over-use may hamper the body’s natural system.

            Bringing it back around:  We don’t want to be anti-anything so let’s phrase it this way.

          2. HOW DO WE ENHANCE THE BODY’S IMMUNE SYSTEM?
            • Hydration – good water and fluid therapy if needed

                                               -Hypertonic saline solution – 1-2 liters IV

                                               -Rumen pump – 5 gal. warm water or electrolytes

              • Excellent nutrition

                                               -high Brix feed

                                               -diversity of diet

                                               -balanced – appropriate to species and age

              • Sunshine – when possible
              • Supplemental antibodies – given IM or sub-q

                                               -Polyserum

                                               -Quatracon 2X

                                               -Bovi-Sera

              • Colostral whey products – 50-100cc IV or sub-q

                                               -Dr. Paul’s Colostral Whey

                                               -Impro products

              • Supplements

                                               -Dr. Paul’s Aloe pellets

                                               -Multimin - trace mineral injectable

                                               -Bo-Se/Mu-Se – Selenium & Vitamin E injectable

              • Botanicals – tinctures or whole/part plant

                                               -Echinacea

              • Immunoboost – non-specific immune enhancer

                                               -5cc bottle – labeled at 1cc IV once for baby calves

                                               -cows – 5cc dose IV

                                               -good for coliform mastitis or salmonella

            3.  HOW DO WE MODULATE THE SYMPTOMS OF INFLAMMATION?

              • Manage edema

                                               -Dr. Paul’s Comfort Boluses

                                               -aloe

                                               -furosemide injectable

                                               -essential oil topicals

                                                           -Dr. Sarah’s Savvy

                                                           -Dr. Sarah’s Udder Crème

                                               -hotpack – large towel with warm water

              • Botanicals

                                               -Echinacea

                                               -Willow bark

                                               -St. John’s Wort

                                               -Chamomile

                                               -Licorice

              • Reduce fever

                                               -Dr. Paul’s FEV-4

              • Pain control

                                               -Dr. Paul’s Dull-It tincture

                                               -Dr. Paul’s Will-John tincture

                                               -Chamomile

              • Oxidation modulation – there is much research on anti-oxidants. Actually, we rely on oxidation to fuel our bodies – it is necessary for life. What we need to provide are compounds that help the body to control excessive free radical reaction.

                                                -Vitamin C – short duration in the body

                                                              -100-250cc initial dose – cow IV

                                                              -50cc IM twice/day for follow-up

                                                -Vitamin A, D, & E injectable – once

                                                -Dr. Paul’s Anti-oxidant Blend tincture

                                                -Vitamin B complex injectable

                                                -Yucca